As you all know, the banking business is in charge of our country’s finances. Banks are the institutional bodies that accept deposits and extend credit to entities. Hence, they play an essential part in our country’s economic standing, which is why the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is in charge of our monetary policy.
For an ordinary man, you can utilise banking for the following:
- Personal Loans
- Vehicle loans
- Home Loan
- Business Loan
- Gold Loan
- Savings/Current account
- Fixed Deposits
- Internet/Mobile Banking
- Customer Care
- Credit/Debit Cards
Classification of Banks in India
You can divide banks into four types:
- Commercial Banks
- Small Finance Banks
- Payments Banks
- Co-operative Banks
You can classify commercial banks into the following categories:
- Public Sector
- Private sector
You can classify co-operative banks into
- Urban Co-op
- State Co-op
Finally, a payments bank is a relatively new addition to the framework.
The Banking Regulation Act of 1949 governs commercial banks, and their business style is profit-oriented. Their primary role is to receive deposits and issue loans to individuals, corporations, and the government. Commercial banks are classified as follows:
- Public Sector Banks
- Foreign Banks
- Private Sector Banks
- RRB Banks
Public Sector Banks
These are the nationalised banks. The government controls the bulk of holdings in these banks. SBI is India’s largest public sector bank and is now ranked among the top 50 banks worldwide.
Private Sector Banks
Private sector banks include banks where private shareholders own most of the stock and those which follow RBI’s banking laws and regulations.
A foreign bank has its headquarters in another nation but operates as a private business in India. You can list international banks operating in India.
Small Finance Banks
These are scheduled commercial banks. However, their primary goal is to provide loans to underserved segments of society, such as agricultural labourers, marginal farmers, and small businesses. They typically function at the regional level in several Indian states, with branches in select urban areas. RRBs also perform the following critical functions:
- Rural and semi-urban areas receive banking and financial services.
- Government functions include MGNREGA wage distribution, pension distribution, and so on.
- Debit cards, credit cards, and locker facilities are examples of non-banking services.
In the Indian banking business, this is a relatively new bank model created by the RBI and is permitted to receive restricted deposits. The amount is now limited to Rs. 1 lakh per customer. They also provide ATM cards, debit cards, net banking, and mobile banking.
The elected managing committee governs co-operative banks under the Cooperative Societies Act of 1912. These operate on a no-profit, no-loss premise, primarily serving urban entrepreneurs, small businesses, industries, and self-employment. They mainly finance agriculture-related sectors like farming, cattle, and hatcheries in rural areas.
- Urban Co-operative Banks
- State Co-operative Banks
Urban Co-operative Banks
You can find urban co-operative or primary co-operative banks in urban and semi-urban areas. These banks mostly lent to small borrowers and enterprises centred on communities, locales, and workplace organisations.
According to the RBI, there were 2,104 urban co-operative banks on 31 March 2003, of which 56 were scheduled banks. 79% are in five states: Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.
State Co-operative Banks
State cooperative banks are the federation of the central co-operative bank. It serves as the custodian of the co-operative banking structure in the state.
You can categorise banks as Scheduled and Non-Scheduled. Every individual must determine whether their savings or deposit account is with a Scheduled Bank or Non-Scheduled Bank. The depositor insurance programme “Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation” covers scheduled banks and benefits all account holders with a savings or fixed/recurring deposit. Your bank deposits, including fixed, savings, current, and regular deposits up to Rs 1 lakh, are guaranteed under DICGC.
The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934’s 2nd Schedule covers the scheduled banks. To qualify as a scheduled bank, the bank must meet the following criteria:
- A bank with a paid-up capital of Rs. 5 lakh or more
- A bank must demonstrate to the central bank that its operations do not jeopardise depositors’ interests.
- A bank should be a corporation, not a sole proprietorship or partnership.
Non-scheduled banks are local area banks not listed in the Reserve Bank of India’s Second Schedule. Non-scheduled banks must also maintain the cash reserve requirement, but not with the RBI.
Net Banking or Internet Banking
Internet banking, called online banking, e-banking, or Net Banking, is a service provided by banks and financial institutions that allows clients to access banking services via the internet.
You can avoid visiting your bank’s branch office to obtain minor services with net banking. Instead, you can use internet banking by signing up when you open your account or later. Then enter your registered customer ID and password to access your internet banking account.
In addition to net banking, NPCI(National Payments Corporation of India) has also launched two other techniques for money transfer.
IMPS or ‘Immediate Payment Service, for instant electronic fund transfer. IMPS help customers transfer money instantly from one account to another and allows inter and intra-bank transfers.
The NEFT, or ‘National Electronic Funds Transfer’, refers to an electronic money transfer system. In NEFT, transactions can happen only between participating banks. There are no restrictions for NEFT transactions; you can use this secure mode to transfer money within a few minutes.
Features of Online Banking
- Examine your account statement online
- Open a fixed-income account
- Utility bill payments, such as water and electricity
- Make payments to merchants
- Transfer money
- Purchase a chequebook
- Purchase general insurance
- Prepaid mobile/DTH recharge
Advantages of Internet Banking
The following are the benefits of internet banking:
- Availability: Banking services are available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. You can view your account balance anytime and transfer funds without waiting for the bank to open.
- Simple to Use: Using internet banking services is simple.
- Convenience: You can continue your tasks by standing in line at the bank. You can complete your transactions from anywhere and pay utility bills, recurring deposit account payments, and other bills.
- Timely: You can finish any transaction in minutes, quickly transfer funds to any account in the country or start a fixed deposit account.
- Tracking Activity: When you complete a transaction at a bank branch, you get an acknowledgement receipt to track transactions through the banking platform.
Disadvantages of Internet/Online Banking
The following are the drawbacks of internet banking:
- Internet Requirement: You must have an active internet connection to use internet banking services.
- Server Availability: If the bank’s servers are unavailable for technical reasons, you cannot use net banking services.
- Transaction Security: Despite the strong encryption measures and other safeguards, online banking transactions are still vulnerable to hackers.
- Difficult for Beginners: Understanding how internet banking works may appear to be a familiar concept to unskilled beginners.
- Password Security: You must supply a password to access an internet banking account’s services and ensure integrity. If you disclose your password to others, they may use the information to commit fraud. Furthermore, the password used must adhere to the bank’s standards. Therefore, individuals must update their passwords regularly to avoid password theft, which might be difficult for the account holder to remember.
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