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Realisation Account Format

Realisation account is a vital concept in accounting, especially in the context of partnership firms and the liquidation of businesses. This comprehensive guide will take you through the various aspects of a Realisation account, its purpose, format, and how it functions.

What is a Realisation Account?

A Realisation account is an accounting statement prepared during the dissolution of a partnership firm or when a business is being liquidated. Its primary purpose is to record and summarise all the financial transactions related to the disposal of assets and settlement of liabilities during this process.

Realisation Account Format

Different Methods of Realisation Accounting

  • Fixed and Fluctuating Capital Method: In this method, the partners’ capital accounts remain fixed throughout the accounting period. The Realisation account is opened to record all transactions related to the sale of assets and settlement of liabilities. The profit or loss on the sale of assets is shared among the partners based on their fixed capital ratios.
  • Fluctuating Capital Method: Here, the capital accounts of the partners are adjusted as and when profits or losses occur during the liquidation process. The Realisation account determines the profit or loss on asset realisation. The profits or losses are distributed according to the adjusted capital ratios.
  • Mixed Method: This method combines elements of both fixed and fluctuating capital methods. Partners’ capital accounts remain fixed, but profits or losses on asset realisation are distributed based on adjusted ratios.

When Would Companies Use a Realisation Account?

Realisation accounts are typically used in the following scenarios:

  1. Dissolution of a Partnership Firm: When a partnership firm decides to dissolve or wind up its operations, a Realisation account helps in the orderly distribution of assets and settlement of liabilities among the partners.
  2. Liquidation of a Business: In case of a sole proprietorship or a company going out of business, a Realisation account ensures that assets are sold and liabilities are paid off systematically.

Objectives of Creating a Realisation Account

The main objectives of preparing a Realisation account are as follows:

  • To maintain a systematic record of all financial transactions related to the sale of assets and settlement of liabilities.
  • To ensure that the distribution of cash or assets among the partners or stakeholders is done fairly and in accordance with their entitlements.
  • To calculate the profit or loss incurred during the realisation process and share it among the partners as per their profit-sharing ratios.
  • To provide transparency in the liquidation process and enable partners or stakeholders to track the status of assets and liabilities.

Realisation Account Format

A Realisation account typically has the following format

Particulars Amount (INR) Particulars Amount (INR)
To Assets A/C XXXX By Liabilities A/C XXXX
To Partner X A/C XXXX To Partner X A/C XXXX
To Partner Y A/C XXXX To Partner Y A/C XXXX
To Partner Z A/C XXXX To Partner Z A/C XXXX
(Any other entries) XXXX (Any other entries) XXXX
Total XXXX Total XXXX


  • The “To Assets A/C” side records the proceeds from the sale of assets.
  • The “To Partner X A/C,” “To Partner Y A/C,” and “To Partner Z A/C” sides represent the payments made to partners.
  • The “By Liabilities A/C” side records the payments made to settle liabilities.

How a Realisation Account is Prepared

Here is a step-by-step explanation of how a Realisation account is prepared and used:

  1. Opening the Account: When the decision to dissolve a partnership firm or liquidate a business is made, a Realisation account is opened. All assets and liabilities are transferred to this account.
  2. Recording Asset Sales: As assets are sold off, the proceeds are recorded on the “To Assets A/C” side. The profit or loss on each asset sale is calculated and included in this section.
  3. Settling Liabilities: Liabilities are paid off and recorded on the “By Liabilities A/C” side. This includes payments to creditors, outstanding expenses, and any other obligations.
  4. Partner Settlements: Any amounts due to partners are recorded under their respective names on the “To Partner X A/C,” “To Partner Y A/C,” etc. Similarly, any amounts payable by partners are recorded on the sides of the “By Partner X A/c,” “By Partner Y A/C,” etc.
  5. Final Calculation: The Realisation account is balanced to determine whether there is a surplus (profit) or deficit (loss). The surplus is distributed among partners according to their profit-sharing ratios.

A Realisation account serves as a crucial tool in the dissolution of partnership firms and the liquidation of businesses. It ensures that the distribution of assets and settlement of liabilities are carried out systematically and fairly. Understanding a Realisation account’s purpose, format, and process is essential for anyone involved in these financial transactions.

FAQs on Realisation Account

What is the Difference Between a Revaluation Account and a Realisation Account?

  • Revaluation Account: Used for adjusting asset and liability values within an ongoing partnership firm due to changes in profit-sharing or new partners. Closed by transferring the balance to partners' capital accounts.
  • Realisation Account: Prepared during firm dissolution or liquidation to calculate profit or loss from asset sales and liability settlements. Closed after settling all assets and liabilities.

What type of account is a Realisation Account?

A Realisation Account is a temporary account. It is created specifically for liquidation when a partnership firm dissolves, or a business undergoes liquidation. Once the liquidation process is complete, the Realisation Account is closed, and its balance is transferred to the partners' capital accounts.

Are Realisation Accounts used only in partnership firms?

While Realisation Accounts are commonly associated with the dissolution of partnership firms, they can also be used in other situations where a business is being liquidated, such as in the case of a sole proprietorship or a company. The purpose remains the same: to calculate the final profit or loss during liquidation.

How is profit or loss calculated in a realisation account?

The profit or loss in a Realisation Account is determined by comparing the total realised value of assets (cash received from asset sales) with the total amount paid to settle liabilities. If the realised value exceeds the liabilities and if the liabilities exceed the realised value, it leads to a loss, which is similarly distributed among the partners.

Can a revaluation account and a realisation account exist simultaneously?

Yes, a Revaluation Account and a Realisation Account can exist simultaneously, but they serve different purposes as explained above.

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